Phenomenology deals with consciousness and related phenomenon. It is mainly based on the study of reality. What human beings can perceive and testify as true and real. One can easily believe existence of a building when they perceive it than one they will hear about. It’s centrally accustomed to reflection of the mind to draw conclusions. It is observed that, reflection comes as a result of experience. This sense of experience augments generation of absolute information and knowledge. Phenomenology constitutes the use of properties of experience to discover existence and reality. It comprises utilization of judgments, emotions and awareness of the body to trigger discovery. Theories have summarized how human beings have been able to function in the world regardless of doubts. Philosophers argued that, phenomenology is more discovery oriented that scientific. It requires one to analyze their behavior and the surroundings to conclude on nature. Consciousness has enabled perception of objects and rekindling of memory. People perceive things differently due to variation in grasp of knowledge. Some people have the ability to intellectualize and make assumptions about what they are perceiving. This variation in internalization of perception is the result of different conclusions. This stage is considered vital for generation of knowledge. It is crystal clear that, information has been enhanced through perception.
This method has discouraged world of speculation. It refutes the idea of human being taking knowledge for granted. It is believed that a great percentage of human beings believe in information without primordial experience. This theory has enhanced appreciation of reality while diminishing the power of customs. Scientists argue that, consciousness is a conscious phenomenon in human beings. It is the peripheral of existence. The state of human beings consciousness affects existence. Human make conclusions on matters they have prior information about. This prior knowledge gives them a background to come to with conclusions they are conscious about. For example the existence of France may not matter to a person, despite having all written information about. However, a trip to France will augment their conscious as they link information to draw their own conclusions. These conclusions will define France according to them. Being different in mental states, human beings often come up with different forms of existence. Each person has their own view of the object they are seeing.
Philosophers have also linked consciousness to intention. One doesn’t make a conclusion on nature without intention. It is intention that augments consciousness and vice versa. It is evident that, without intention consciousness can be a fantasy. Basic structure making up consciousness, like memory, perception are also known as intentionalities.
Ethnomethodology is a theoretical move in sociology built on the assumption that one can find out an ordinary social orders of the community by altering it. Ethnomethodologist usually alters the normal running of the society so as to find out the way individuals react and reinstate the normal community order. Base on this theory individuals are viewed as rational, despite the fact that they use realistic reasoning instead of logical thinking to make their conclusions regarding the society and how it functions. Based on this theory the community is built completely on this method of recognizing and depicting recognition.
It is worth noting that ethnomethodoly is built on the assumption that social interaction occurs based on the harmony and good relationship. God harmony within the society is what connects people together within the community. What join individuals to live as one is the norms, beliefs and values that they share. A society share the same norms, values and beliefs, therefore, altering them, it offers an opportunity to research more about the community and how they respond to the altered way of living. From ethnomethodoly, it is believed no one understand his or her norms since they cannot articulate or express them. It is therefore the work of ethnomethodology to discover such norms and behaviors. Ethnomethodoly is a social fact which is not external of a person. This social fact is a byproduct of community members’ daily activities since it describes their understanding about the world. One of the key issues is that the social fact is automatically responsible. This means that individuals can argue the way they reach into a specific conclusion.
Ethnomethodoly is very essential for various reasons. First and foremost is the fact that it helps in cultural understanding. It is worth noting that ethnographic research alters a preconceived belief and misunderstandings regarding a specific culture changing it into constructive understanding. Additionally, ethnographic examination also helps individuals to acknowledge various interpretations of different cultures that have been investigated there before. On the other hand, it also offers a clear understanding of one’s culture.
Despite the above benefit, this can be time consuming since an anthropologist needs to first learn the language and do a detailed research regarding the society under study. This often takes quite a lot of time. It is also risky if the anthropologist is not in a position to understand traditions and taboos of a particular culture.
The next advantage is cultural influence. An anthropologist only makes use of subject observation to a specific culture. For example an anthropologist can investigate on everyday activities and reach into an inference on its meaning. However, this is disadvantageous in that it is the anthropologist can be biased regarding the culture leading to misinterpretation and misunderstanding about the culture.
Next advantage is that ethnographic research assist individuals make records about their way of life and maintain their heritage. A lot of culture would have gone unrecognized were it not for this study. However, this can be disadvantageous since it can infringe people’s private life.